YUKON DELTA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
In southwest Alaska, the waters of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers flow through a vast "treeless plain," or tundra that forms the heart of the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge. Almost 70% of this 19 million acre refuge is below 100 feet in elevation, and consists of a broad, flat delta stitched through with rivers and streams and dotted with countless lakes, sloughs and ponds. Bordering this expanse of tundra and wetlands are forest and shrub habitat and uplands sporting mountains more than 4000 feet high. The refuge also includes two large islands - Nelson and Nunivak.
The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta is among the most populated rural areas in Alaska and within the refuge, 35 villages and nearly 25,000 Yup'ik Eskimo people make their home. Along with this population comes a region rich in culture where residents dependent on resources to support an active subsistence way of life.
A vision of the Yukon Delta Refuge is one of waterfowl. Without question, the refuge supports one of the largest aggregations of water birds in the world and a spectacle takes place every spring as millions of ducks, geese, and other water birds return to the refuge to nest. But a vision of the refuge must be much broader than waterfowl. It supports one of the most important shorebird nesting areas in the United States in terms of both density and species diversity. Hundreds of miles of rivers and streams provide spawning and rearing habitat for 44 species of fish including all five North American Pacific salmon. Drier upland habitats harbor populations of both brown and black bears, caribou, moose, wolves, and muskox. Along the coast of the refuge, the waters of the Bering Sea host a variety of marine mammals, including whales which pass during migration.
The Yukon Delta NWR encompasses approximately 19 million acres within the northern boreal zone of southwestern Alaska. The Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers created this delta which includes extensive tidal wetlands that are scarcely above sea level and are frequently inundated by Bering Sea tides. The coastal plain is contrasted by uplands and mountains mostly to the north, east, and south but the relatively small Askinuk Mountains are located along the refuge's western coast and are the only part of the coastal plain that was glaciated. The Kilbuck Mountains occur along the eastern boundary of the refuge and range from 2,000 to 4,000 feet in elevation.
Over the course of time, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers created one of the largest river deltas in the world. That delta, a generally flat marshland containing innumerable lakes and ponds, is the dominant landscape of the Yukon Delta Refuge. This region which was once part of the land mass called Beringia, or Bering Land Bridge, has been occupied for thousands of years. It continues to serve as home for over 25,000 people, mostly Yup'ik Eskimos who live in 35 villages scattered throughout the refuge.